100 Gram
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10 Gram

CAS Number      68497-62-1

Chemical and physical data

Formula               C14H27N3O2

Molar mass         269.383 g/mol g·mol−1

Pramiracetam is a drug that may enhance memory and improve overall cognition. Its unique properties make it a potentially powerful brain performance optimizer on its own or in a nootropic stack.

What Is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is a synthetic derivative of piracetam, the first laboratory-created nootropic, but is significantly more potent.‍

Discovered and developed by Parke-Davis in the 1970s, pramiracetam has been extensively studied as a potential treatment for cognitive problems and memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease and brain injury‍ and as a treatment for a variety of central nervous system disorders.‍

Pramiracetam has been clinically proven to improve memory in healthy elderly adults with memory loss‍ and enhance overall cognition in young adults with memory problems.‍

Anecdotal evidence suggests that pramiracetam optimizes overall brain function and increases focus and productivity making it a popular choice among students and others who want to enhance their mental abilities.‍

Benefits and Effects of Pramiracetam

Pramiracetam is a true nootropic, created specifically to enhance cognition. Its benefits and effects include the following:

Improved Memory

Pramiracetam is a proven memory enhancer, extensively tested over several decades and shown effective in both animal studies and clinical trials of young adults with cognitive impairment due to brain injuries.‍

Pramiracetam improves memory both by stimulating the hippocampus, the part of the brain primarily responsible for the creation of new memories and by acting as a potent anti amnesic that reduces forgetfulness.‍ This dual action makes pramiracetam a very effective memory booster, and many users also report significant improvement in speed of recall, a claim that has been corroborated by animal studies.‍

Increased Alertness and Expanded Learning Capacity

Pramiracetam’s reputation as a general cognitive enhancer that increases alertness and expands learning capacity has made it a popular choice among students seeking a reliable study aid.

Though no human studies on these specific effects have been documented, animal studies indicate that pramiracetam contributes to the mechanisms underlying learning and memory improvement by increasing neuronal type nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the hippocampus.‍ NOS activity is associated with neural development and brain plasticity, both of which are crucial to all aspects of cognition.

Pramiracetam is also known to increase high-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus, thus indirectly fueling the production of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter that is strongly associated with learning and cognition.‍

Dementia Treatment

Open-label trials in patients with primary degenerative dementia show that Pramiracetam effectively reversed amnesia, significantly enhancing recall and reducing forgetfulness.‍

In other studies, which measured the effects of pramiracetam and other racetam-class nootropics on patients with mild to moderate dementia, outcomes included observable cognitive benefits including cognitive gains and improved memory; it is believed that these outcomes are attributable at least in part to the nootropics’ potentiation of existing neurotransmitters.

Social Fluency

While there is no documented research on this aspect of pramiracetam, many users report that it makes them more conversationally creative and socially fluent. This may be attributable at least in part to pramiracetam’s reputed emotional blunting effect,‍ which is sometimes described as similar to that of Ritalin. This effect may reduce social anxiety and in turn enhance social fluency.

Neuroprotective Capabilities

Pramiracetam is known to have considerable neuroprotectant effects, capable of improving cognition in humans who have experienced brain trauma.‍

Studies have also shown it to have a demonstrable neuroprotective effect when used during coronary bypass surgery, as well as in the treatment of cognitive disorders of cerebrovascular origin.‍

How It Works

Like most nootropics, pramiracetam affects the release of neurotransmitters, brain chemicals that transmit signals from one nerve cell to another. But pramiracetam does it indirectly, in a manner somewhat different from the usual actions of racetam supplements, and it stimulates the brain in other ways as well.

Most racetams work by directly stimulating specific neurotransmitter receptor sites and thus increasing production and release of specific neurotransmitters,‍ but pramiracetam doesn’t directly result in changes in neurochemical levels, and it doesn’t appear to have an affinity for any major neurotransmitter. Its primary direct action is a significant increase in high-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus.

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter profoundly involved in all cognitive processes, including learning speed, memory, and concentration.

By stimulating choline uptake, pramiracetam indirectly modulates the release of acetylcholine and stimulates increased activity in the hippocampus. Because this part of the brain is essential to memory function, the general stimulation that pramiracetam creates can improve both the formation of new memories and the retention of reference or long-term memories. The increased activity in the hippocampus also increases cerebral blood flow, which enhances alertness and improves cognitive abilities in general.

Pramiracetam may have other mechanisms of action as well. Researchers have hypothesized that in addition to its effect on the brain, pramiracetam acts in peripheral sites outside the brain that rely on the adrenal glands.‍

Animal studies suggest that pramiracetam may also increase or restore brain membrane fluidity, which facilitates cell signaling.‍

Unlike many other racetam class nootropics, pramiracetam doesn’t appear to actively alter either wakefulness or emotional states. This can be explained by pramiracetam’s limited influence on the production and release of the neurotransmitters that have the greatest effect on mood and anxiety levels such as serotonin, GABA, and dopamine.‍

Pramiracetam is fat soluble rather than water soluble, which means it is absorbed into the bloodstream via fatty acids. It reaches peak concentrations and maximum bioavailability relatively quickly, generally within 30 minutes, and it has a moderately long half-life of 4.5-6.5 hours.


The existing human studies used a total daily intake of 1200 mg of pramiracetam, divided into two or three doses per day.‍

They did not indicate that this dosage was optimal, but it was found to be both effective and well tolerated and may be a good reference point in determining personal dosage needs.

It is always wise to start with the lowest possible effective dose and adjust amounts as needed.

The fact that pramiracetam is fat rather than water soluble means that mixing the powder with water or any nonfat liquid is difficult; instead of dissolving, it will simply float on the surface. Some users report dissolving their dose of pramiracetam powder with a small amount of oil,‍which may also enhance absorption and bioavailability.

Many individuals opt to take pramiracetam in capsule form due to its pungent flavor.